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SABAOC-Also Sabaoth, one of the angels who were declared by a council in Rome in 745 under Pope Zachary to be no longer eligible for veneration by the faithful. He joined several other angels, including Uriel, Simiel, Tubuas, Adimus, and Raguel.

SABAOTH-A Hebrew word meaning "hosts" that has been used over the years to denote the heavenly hosts. In a more personal sense it means an actual angel or, one of the archons. Sabaoth is also used as a spelling for the angel Sabaoc, who with other angels was removed from official lists by Church officials in 745 as ineligible for veneration by the faithful.

SABRAEL-See Sidriel.

SAHAQIEL-One of the seven great archangels listed in the Third Book of Enoch. According to that source on angelic lore, Sahaqiel is the guardian of the fourth heaven; like all archangels, he is prince of a heavenly host and is attended by 496,000 myriads of minstering angels.

SALATHIEL-An angel whose name means "I have asked the Lord" and who is one of the great archangels in some Jewish legends.

SAMAEL-Also called Sammael, Samil, and even Satan, an angel whose name has been interpreted as meaning "angel" (el) of "poison" (sam); he is considered in legend both a member of the heavenly host (with often grim and destructive duties) and a fallen angel, equatable with Satan and the chief of the evil spirits. One of Samael's greatest roles in Jewish lore is that of the angel of death. In this capacity he is a fell angel but nevertheless remains one of the Lord's servants. (See also Death, Angel of.) As a good angel, Samael supposedly resides in the seventh heaven, although he is declared to be the chief angel of the fifth heaven.

SAMUIL-Also Samoil and Semil, an angel whose name means "heard of God" and who is one of the angelic messengers credited with transporting the famous patriarch Enoch to heaven, along with the angel Raguel. Another angel most often mentioned in legend as being responsible for this translation is Anafiel.

SANDALPHON-The tall angel, twin brother of the angel Metatron, and, according to the poet Longfellow, the angel of glory and the angel of prayer. In Greek Sandalphon means "brother," and it is in this role that he is probably best known, for he is the spiritual sibling and close companion of Metatron. This affinity is based largely in the similarities of the two angels; just as Metatron is reputed to have once been the patriarch Enoch, Sandalphon is declared in legend to be the onetime Old Testament prophet Elijah. While said in some traditions to be in charge of the fourth, sixth, or even seventh heaven. As the angel of prayer he helps carry the prayers of the faithful into heaven, making of them a beautiful and delicate garland to decorate the head of the Lord.

SANTRIEL-An angel mentioned exclusively in the Jewish mystical work Zohar. The angel has only one known duty, unpleasant as it might be: he is to journey to the world of men and gather bodies of all the dead who in their earthly lives had neglected to honor the SABBATH. The condemned souls are then taken to Gehenna and held up before all of the other sinners so that they might note how the corpses of such wicked people are the breeding ground for worms.

SARAQAEL-Also Sariel and Sarakiel, one of the mighty archangels mentioned in the First Book of Enoch. Saraqael has authority over the spirits (or children) of humankind who have sinned in the spirit. He is joined in his duties as an archangel by Gabriel, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, and Suruel. He is also thought in some sources to be synonymous with the mighty angel Uriel.

SARIEL-See Saraqael.

SARIM-The plural name for the Hebrew word sar ("prince' or "celestial"), used for several types of angels. The sarim are considered part of the singing angels who reside in heaven and ceaselessly sing the praises of the Lord; they are under the overall authority of the towering angel Tagas. Sarim are also said to be the seventy angels in charge of the nations. According to custop, all of the guardian angels of the nations-fell from grace and are now counted among the fallen angels-with the exception of Michael.

SASNIGIEL-A angel mentioned in the Third Book of Enoch and ranked as one of the members of the angelic hierarchy. He, like all of the other angelic princes, wears a magnificent crown, which he removes in the presence of one of the angelic princes ranked higher than he in the celestial hierarchy.

SATAN-The leader of the fallen angels and one of the embodiments of every kind of evil; he rules over the demons and devils in hell and plots their chronic struggle against God and heaven. One of the most significant figures in religious history, he has been known by a host of names (Lucifer, the Devil, evil one, father of lies, Mephistopheles, Mr. Scratch, etc.). Satan's primary purpose is to tempt humanity into sin (Matthew 4:3) and 1 Thessalonians 3:5), the very sin he helped to create. According to Christian lore, Satan was once one of the mightiest and most beloved angels in all of heaven. Aside from his post as a chief minister to the Lord, he was also head or chief of the angelic choirs of the seraphim and virtues (he may also have been prince over the powers and archangels). He was perhaps a member of the seraphim, which makes sense given his luminosity. When God created humanity, Satan refused to bow down to humans. When he still refused when the Lord commanded him, he crossed over the barrier of obedience and became the first angel to sin. He declared war with God. This ended in defeat and he and one-third of the angels were expelled from heaven. Satan remains the most profound expression of evil. He struggles endlessly to ensnare the souls of humankind.

SATQIEL-One of the princes of the seven heavens as noted in the Third Book of Enoch. Satqiel is in charge of the fifth heaven, and, as with other angelic princes, he is attended by 496,000 myriads of ministering angels.

SCOURGING ANGELS-The grim name given to the group of angels (called in the Hebrew malache habbala) who were beheld by the patriarch Abraham during his visit to Paradise.

SCRIBES-See Recording Angels.

SEALS-See Merkabah Angels.

SEASONS, ANGELS OF THE-A group of four angels, with their assistants, who have authority or act as patrons of the seasons of the year. The angels are as follows: Spring-Spugliguel, aided by Amatiel and others:Summer-Tubiel, aided by Tariel and others:Fall-Torquaret, aided by Guabarel and others:Winter-Attarib, aided by Amabael and others.

SEFIRA-The singular of the important angelic beings the sefiroth.

SEFIROTH-The plural for the sefira, the divine emanations found in the Jewish mystical system of the Qabalah, through which God, as the en-Sof (the Divine), brought into existence all of Creation. Also known as sephiroth, they can be considered the ten delegated powers of God, controlling the basic structure of the universe and representing ten attributes of the Divine. There are ten holy sefiroth that emanated from the right hand of the Lord and ten unholy sefiroth that were from the left. The holy sefiroth act as his means of interacting with his Creation.

SEGEF-An angel mentioned in the work Jewish Magic and Superstition by Joshua Trachtenberg. He is to be ranked among the feared angels of destruction and is traditionally invoked at the end of the SABBATH.

SEMALION-Probably a variant spelling for the angel Samael; nevertheless, under this name an angel is declared in the Talmud as having proclaimed to the world that Moses had finally died, shouting out, "The Lawgiver is dead!"

SEMYAZA-According to Jewish mythology the leader of the fallen angels, children of heaven who descended from the celestial kingdom and entered into union with the women of the world. Also called Semyaz, Shamazya, and Semiaza, he brought with him two hundred fellow angels; they not only begot children by the women, they taught humanity a variety of useful talents, such as medicine and plants, and some destructive skills as well, including sword making, astrology, and adultry. Most wicked of all were the children of the angels, giants who stood several miles high and brought much suffering to the people of earth. In vengeance, the Lord dispatched his most powerful angels, including Michael and Gabriel, and they imprisoned the fallen angels in the valleys of the earth. The giants were later wiped out in the Great Flood of Noah fame.

SERAPH-The shortened version of the angelic choir of the seraphim, generally used in the singular when referring to one member of that august angelic body. Milton, for example, in his Paradise Lost, refers to the faithful seraph Abdiel.

SERAPHIEL-Also Serapiel, the chief or prince of the high angelic order of the seraphim. One of the most resplendent of all angels, he is described as having the face of an angel and the body of an eagle, which is full of eyes so many in number that they cannot be counted, each shining forth like the morning star. As chief of the seraphim, Seraphiel has the main duty of standing by his angelic charges and teaching them every manner of song, psalm, and chant in eternal praise to God.

Seraphim (Choir)-The highest and most splendid of the nine accepted angelic orders as developed by the sixth-century theologian Dionysius the Areopagite and largely embraced by the Christian Church. Not only are the seraphim the highest of the nine choirs, they are ranked first in the first triad of the Dionysian scheme, with the cherubim and the thrones. Without question they are the closest in all of heaven to the very throne of God, and their primary function is to circle the incomprehensibly beautiful throne in perpetual adoration of the Lord. According to Enoch, each seraphim has six wings. The last detail is corroborated by the Old Testament Book of Isaiah (6:1-3).

SEVEN ARCHANGELS-See Archangels, Seven.

SHAITAN-In Arabic legend, a fallen angel generally identified with the Islamic devil Iblis or Satan.

SHAMIEL-Also Shamael and Shammiel, one of the leaders in Jewish lore of the angelic choirs in their singing the praises of God. Other angels mentioned in this role have included Tagas, Metatron, Radueriel, Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun.

SHAMSIEL-Also Shamshiel. a leading angel in the celestial hierarchy whose name means "light of God." He is the angelic guardian of the fourth heaven (although Sahaqiel is often named in this post as well) and is honored as the guardian of Paradise, a title that makes him the chief protector of the Garden of Eden. Curiously, in the First Book of Enoch and under the name Sasomaspeel or Samsapeel, he is ranked as one of the fallen angels who descended to the earth and cohabited with women.

SHATQIEL-An angel mentioned in the Third Book of Enoch as belonging to the exalted ranks of the princes of the seven heavens, meaning that he may be termed one of the archangels. He is in charge of the fifth heaven and like his fellows, is attended by some 496,000 myriads of ministering angels. In other sources he is named as the guardian or prince of the fourth heaven.

SIDRIEL-Also Sabrael, a high-ranking angel mentioned in the Third Book of Enoch. He is one of the princes of the seven heavens and is in charge of the first heaven. Thus honored as being one of the archangels. As the others, is attended by 496,000 myriads of ministering angels. He is often credited with the post of chief or prince of the angelic order of the tarshishim, the Hebrews equivalent of the virtures.

SIMIEL-One of the angels removed from official lists of angels to be venerated by the Church in 745 at a council in Rome.

SOPERIEL YHWH-Also Sopheriel and Sofriel, two of the mighty angelic princes of heaven in Jewish lore; they have the task of keeping the large books in which are recorded the names of all those who will have life and the names of all those who will die. Soperiel means "who puts to death" and Soperiel means "who makes alive." They possess two of the most important works in all of Creation, reading the names of all who ever shall be born and the exact times and moments of each living person's demise.

SOPHIA-See Pistis Sophia.

SOQEDHOZI YHWH-An angelic prince in Jewish lore. He has charge over the incredibly delicate and accurate scale in which the souls of all humans are weighed at the time of their judgment before the throne of God. The scales measure their merits against their faults and sins; those found wanting in the merits department are cast out for eternal punishment. Like the other angels who stand in the court of the Lord, Soqedhozi is utterly without pity in the execution of his duties, although like all angels, his heart grieves at the wickedness of men and women.

SOTERASIELYHWH-A formidable angelic prince whose name means "he who stirs the fire of God" and who is mentioned in the Third Book of Enoch as having authority over the four great chiefs of the River of Fire (the river flowing from the throne of God). He has the privilege of stirring the fiery waters of the river and is the sole angel who grants permission to other angelic princes to enter or leave the so-called Shekinah, often described as the glory that emanates from the Lord. He is considered one of the tallest angels in heaven.

SOULS, CARRIERS OF-One of the important functions of some angels, namely to fetch the souls of the deceased and transport them to the next world. Thus both the blessed and the damned are first carried to heaven, and, once there, the Book of Life, containing the list of those chosen from time inmemorial, is read to determine if the deceased's name is in it.

SPIRIT OF GOD-The translated title of the Latin phrase spirtus Dei that is used by the noted Christian apologist Lactantius (d. 323) for angels.

SRAOSHA-Also Sirush, an angelic being found in the lore of the Zoroastrians, the ancient religion of Persia. He is ranked as one of the amesha spentas, the holy immortals, and is one of the spirits who figure in the afterlife of all humanity. He carries the souls of the deceased to the next world. He is also in some legends a defender of humanity, journeying down to the world to chase away all evildoers, especially the devils and bringers of sin.

STARS-The lights of the night sky and the constellations that figure in the lore of angels. As with the planets, nature, and just about everything else, the stars are said to be directed in their paths and function through the assistance or guardianship of angels. In some Jewish legends the syars are said to be under the charge of the angel Kokbiel, while the constellations are under Rahatiel. The stars have also been considered another name for the angels themselves, as seen in the declaration by the Lord in the Old Testament Book of Job (38:4-7).

SUKALLIN-A type of angelic being found in the mythology of the Sumerians and Babylonians. The sukallin are considered precursors or a foreshadowing of the later angels.

SUN, ANGELS OF THE-A title borne by a number of likely angelic candidates. In the lore of Enoch, Galgalliel is listed as having charge over the orb of the sun, but other angels of the sun include Michael, Raphael, Varcan, and especially Uriel. The last angel, whose very name means "fire of God," os perhaps (after Galgalliel) the angelic potentate most deserving of the title.

SURUEL-Also Suriel, a mighty archangel, often identified with Uriel, Metatron, and Ariel. Suruel appears in a number of Jewish legends, including those surroundings the Lawgiver, Moses. With the angel of the burning bush (Zagzagel), he is supposedly one of the main sources of Moses' great knowledge; in recognition of his contributions to the life of Moses, Suruel was permitted by God to descend to the earth at the appointed time and retrieve the mighty soul of the Lawgiver, whose death had been proclaimed by the angel Semalion. Suruel also appears in the First Book of Enoch as one of the grand archangels, with Raphael, Michael, Gabriel, and Saraqael.

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