A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M 
N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z
Appendix Main  Appendix One   Appendix Two  

email support groups

JAEL-One of the two cherubim, with Zarall, who were said to have been carved upon the Ark of the Covenant, although in some accounts there were said to be four angels instead of two. Jael, with his counterpart, was placed upon the so-called mercy seat of the Ark, their wings spread out, shadowing the mercy seat.

JEDUTHUN-An angel and example of the infrequent but interesting transformation of a mortal into an angel through the labors of writers and the pervasiveness of legend. Jeduthun was almost certainly the choirmaster of the Great Temple of Jerusalem, so honored that three Psalms from the Old Testament (39, 62, and 77) are dedicated "To the choirmaster: to Jeduthun" and "To the choirmaster: according to Jeduthun." Over time, however, Jeduthun was made the subject of a legend-fellow composers Heman and Asaph-in which he became an angel (or was already one), holding the high post in heaven of directing the choirs of angels during the evening hours in their endless praises of God. His colleagues Asaph and Heman occupy the post during other hours of the day.

JEHOEL-Also Jaoel and Yahoel, a powerful angelic prince who is variously honored in Jewish legend as the chief or leader of the angelic order of the seraphim and the master of the heavenly choirs that sing in eternal adoration of God.

JEREMIEL-Also called Ramiel, an archangel whose name means "mercy of God." Identified with the archangel Ramiel as listed in the First Book of Enoch and 2 Esdras, Jeremiel has been named one of the archangels in the earliest lists ever assembled concerning the members of that most august angelic body. (For other details, see Ramiel.)

JIBRIL-Also Jibra'il and Jabril, a common spelling of the name of the archangel Gabriel as it appears in the literature of the Qur'an, the sacred scriptual text of Islam.

JINN-The Arabic name for the anglicized genies, the supernatural spirits or beings found mostly in Islamic or Arabian mythology and the subject of intensive development in literature and folklore in Persia, Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Turkey, and across North Africa. According to mythology, the jinn were created some two thousand years before the making of Adam and were possessors of a lofty place in paradise, roughly equal to that of the angels, although they were probably considered beneath the angels. They are said to have been made of air and fire. After God made Adam, however, the jinn, under their proud and willful leader Iblis (or Eblis, refused to bow down before the mortal. For this grievous refusal, the jinn were cast out of heaven, becoming wicked and hideous demons. Iblis, who fell with them, became the equivalent of Satan. On earth they reputedly live in the Kaf Mountains, which supposedly circle the world. While inferior to devils, the jinn are nevertheless strong and exceedingly cunning. There is, though, a tradition that not all jinn are irredeemably fallen. Some, it is thought, are actually kindly disposed toward humanity, aiding them whenever help is needed-or when it is convenient to the jinni.

JOEL-An archangel who had a leading part to play in the mythological account called the Book of Adam and Eve. In some sourcesJoel is considered the first of the names borne by the great angel Metatron-in the Third Book of Enoch, for example (there spelled Yaho'el).

JOPHIEL-An angel also called Iofiel and Zophiel, whose name means "the beauty of God." Jopiel is a formidable angelic personality, said in Jewish lore to be a special friend of the archangel Metatron. He is listed among the seven archangels by the early medieval theologian and angelologist Dionysius the Areopagite, occupying the sixth place. Additionally he is ranked as one of the chiefs or princes of the angelic choir of cherubim. Jophiel is credited in Christian lore with two other significant tasks. First, in Eden he was the appointed guardian of the tree of life (a role also given to Raphael); second, and most memorably, he is credited with being the fell angel who drove Adam and Eve out of the Garden of Eden.

JUDGMENT, ANGELS OF THE LAST-The angels who are to appear at the Last Judgment, the final day, when all who have ever lived will be brought before the throne of God. The idea of the Last Judgment is especially prominent in Islamic and Christian lore. In the latter, the angel Israfel shall play a blast upon his mighty trumpet to awaken the slumbering dead. Some angels will be spared the effects of the first blasts, but after the third or fourth even they shall be destroyed by the Lord and the end of time will have descended upon all of creation. In the Christian tradition, the Second Coming of Christ will be announced not by Israfel, but by Gabriel, who will likewise sound an irresistible note upon his trumpet. Also prominent in the expected Day of Judgment is St. Michael the Archangel, captain of the hosts of the Lord, who will presumably have just led the heavenly hosts in their final triumph over Satan and the legions of darkness.

back to previous page next page

directory appendix