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Appendix Main    Appendix One   

Jezebeth (Unk) A demon of falsehoods.

Jin Laut An Indonesian sea demon. In Javanese mythology, a servant of the goddess of the southern ocean, who can kill a person by sitting on his chest.

Jinn The usual Arabic term for demon is 'Jinn.' They are referred to as the 'dark ones' or the 'concealed ones.' They are usually regarded as the descendants or ghostly shadows of nations who have passed away. They live in desolate places that were formerly populated, and also in burial grounds and places of filth or refuse. It was believed that they loved darkness and feared the approach of day.
Another story of the Jinn tells of several thousand years before the creation of Adam, a class of beings called Jinn inhabited the earth. They were made of fire, which circulated in their veins instead of blood. When a Jinn was mortally wounded, fire burst forth from his body and consumed him until he was but a heap of ashes. In the Koran, this fire is called 'smokeless fire,' and it is associated with the scorching heat of the desert wind Simoon, as opposed to the life substance of the heavenly angels whose blood is linked with the pure light substance emanating from Allah. The Jinn were a powerful race, governed over by a succession of seventy-two kings or Suleyman. The last Suleyman, Jan-Ibn-Jan, is said to have built the pyramids.
They were a vain and hot-headed race and Allah often sent angels, in the guise of prophets, down to earth to admonish them. When they refused to better their ways or be true servants of God, an army of angels was dispatched to earth, defeating them after several battles and taking many prisoners.
Among the prisoners was a young Jinn, named El-Harith, whom the angels took with them to heaven. There he grew up under their guidance and finally became their leader. El-Harith was no other than Iblis, 'the evil one,' as he was to be called when he lead the angels' revolt against Allah.
When the children of Adam had peopled the earth, the vindictive Jinn lead by Iblis, distributed themselves among them and perpetrated all kinds of malicious deeds. They later began to resemble men in that they ate and drank, and propagated their own species. At times they united with human beings, and the offspring of such a union took on the nature of both parents, making them very cunning and dangerous mortals indeed.
The Jinn take on any number of animal or human shapes, according to their whim. They also have the ability to be visible or invisible at their choosing. The Jinn usually take the form of snakes, lizards, scorpions, and other creeping things, but they can also take the form of larger animals. One legend tells of a family of Mecca that was so plagued by the Jinn that its members went out into the desert and began to systematically kill all insects and reptiles. After a while the Jinn were so depleted in number that they decided to call a truce. The family then returned home and was never again plagued or haunted by the demons. Sometimes they take on the form of hybrid animals, such as a combination of a wolf, a hyena, etc.
The Jinn are not pure spirits because if one is killed, a solid carcass remains. An example of this is the story of how a Ghul ('the daughter of the Jinn') came one night to the fire which a man had kindled. The man cut off her head, which resembled a cat with a forked tongue.
King Solomon, when he first saw the Jinn, was horrified by their ugly appearance. But with the help of incantations and spells given to him by one of Allah's archangels he managed to gain power over them and could command then at will. He confined them in a brazen vessel which he hid in a deep well.
The Jinn are usually divided into five classes, the least powerful being the Jann. These demons create minor nuisances, and steal animals from farmers. The Jann are usually demons who have been demoted from the second and more powerful category of the Jinn. The third class is called the Afrits. These are considered to be the embodiment of cleverness, so much so, that to call a Mohammedan an Afrit is the highest compliment one can pay to his intelligence. Next in rank come the powerful Marids and Sheitans, the most evil ones, and the favourite troops of Iblis, who bestowed upon them great gifts of extraordinary strength and knowledge.
Besides the five classes of these fiends, there are a number of Jinn who are obedient to Allah and believe in the Prophet. These good Jinn often assume the form of household serpents, still common among certain East African and Ethiopian tribes. Frequently they appear in the shape of a toad. In Morocco, toads are therefore not killed, but respectfully requested to leave the house.
At times the evil Jinn ascend to the confines of the lower heaven, where they eavesdrop on the conversations of angels. Men versed in the arts of conjuring and binding demons can make the Jinn reveal what they overheard, and so gain some knowledge of future events.
The Jinn are said to be responsible for everything that appears contrary. For example, if cattle refuse to drink when driven to water, the Jinn are responsible. They are also said to be responsible if a woman is unfruitful or has a miscarriage. They are said to be the cause of all sickness and disease, and can also possess people.
Throughout Persian and Arabic civilizations, encounters with the Jinn have been a favourite topic for the narratives and comments of eminent historians and religious leaders. An example are the famous tales of the Thousand and One Nights. Here is one small story, as told by the historian Ibn Athir.
"In the year six hundred of the Hegira (the usual Islamic time-reckoning, based on the date of Mohammed's flight from Mecca to Medina in A.D. six hundred and twenty-two), Ibn Athir resided in the city of Mosul on the Tigris River.
It was then that an epidemic disease of the throat ravaged the country. The source of the epidemic was traced to a woman who was of the Jinn race.
This woman had just lost her favourite son, Ankood, and was angry at Allah for what she called an unjust treatment.
When she was in mourning, no one came to console her, so to avenge herself and her son's death, she used her evil powers to spread the fatal disease. As soon as it was known that she was a Jinn, all the people assembled and surrounded her house. They yelled with all their strength:
'O mother of Ankood, excuse us! Ankood is dead, and we did not mind it!'
The Jinn, thus pacified, left the region never to return or to be heard of again, and in a few days time, the epidemic subsided."

Junier Prince of the demonic angels.